5 pathways of virus entry
Prof. Ari Helenius, Institute of Biochemistry, ETH Zürich
The entry of animal viruses into their host cells follows a step-wise process. After virus attachment to cell surface receptors, it typically involves induction of signals, endocytosis, penetration into the cytosol, and intra-cellular transport to the site of replication followed by uncoating of the genome. Each step is complex, and dependent on multiple cellular factors. Using enveloped and non enveloped viruses from different families, we have defined five main pathways, and determined some of the key processes in molecular detail. The use of automated high through-put siRNA silencing screens have been critical for the identification of the cellular factors involved. In the lecture, vaccinia, respiratory syncytial, and influenza virus will be discussed in most detail.